Monday, 25 August 2014

Science Equipment for Biology Laboratory

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To start with, when you begin equipping a molecular biology lab, you need the usual test tubes, beakers, desiccators, pipettes with fillers, and flasks, together with all the necessary clamps, stoppers, frames and supports.

The basic furniture will need to consist of sufficient worktop space, computer station/s, chemical  lab equipment and biological storage cabinets, possibly a filtered, controlled environment (heating & cooling, and humidity control). In some cases access control, a gray room and clean room conditions may even be necessary.

Since this branch of science deals with organic materials from living cell tissues, it stands to reason that temperatures are critical. Most laboratories use refrigerators and freezers, and sometimes surface mounted refrigeration units. Some procedures may require temperatures to be reduced to as low as -86A deg. C.

Centrifuges and microcentrifuges may need to stand on refrigerated and unrefrigerated tabletops for different purposes.

The heating devices may include a microwave, Bunsen burners, and/or hot plates.

There are a number of calibrated and measurement devices, apart from the glassware, that will be needed in a laboratory, such as certain plastic ware, micro balances and scales, pH meters, moisture meters and thermometers.

Microscopes or electron microscopes appropriate to the research being done, together with camera port and link to computer. These are a part of every laboratory.

There is a large number of apparatus and equipment generally considered essential for a molecular biology laboratory. Tissue processing for DNA identification is often an important part of molecular biology and many processes require the equipment for this, depending on the extent of DNA study and genomics. Here is some of the general apparatus likely to be needed:

* CO2 incubator for cell cultures.
* Vacuum pumps.
* Liquid nitrogen tank.
* Water bath.
* Magnetic stirrer.
* Spectrophotometer.
* Chromatograph.
* Vortex rotators and platform shakers.
* Autoclaves and sterilizers.
* Electrophoresis chamber and gel casting and documentation chamber.
* UV Transilluminator.
* Gradient and standard thermocycler to amplify segments of DNA.

Then we come to the question of safety and protection of the environment and of the people who work in the laboratory; and most of the following will normally be necessary:
Clothing such as:

* Aprons and lab coats.
* Coveralls.
* Footwear, such as shoe covers.
* Head covers, bouffant caps and face covers, masks.


* Heavy weight latex gloves.
* Thin, disposable latex gloves.
* Nitrile gloves.
* Cotton gloves.
* Vinyl gloves.

For eye protection there is a great variety of safety glasses, clear and tinted for lazer and UV work, as well as masks and face shields with and without respirators for protection against splashing, fumes and gasses and flying objects. It is important in a laboratory to install an eyewash station for emergencies.

Last but not least is all the equipment needed for cleaning and sterilizing the glassware, apparatus and even the clothing and furniture used in the laboratory. The cleaning of these items is not always straight forward, and some special procedures need to be followed. You need to have specially designed scrubbers and brushes as well as suitable cleaning fluids and preparations, among other things.

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Friday, 22 August 2014

Importance Of Soil Testing Equipment I Atico Export

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Soil testing is a process that seeks to chemically remove elements (e.g. potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese and sulfur) from the soil. The quantity of nutrients in soil samples helps to recommend the amount of fertilizer required. Soil testing lab equipment seeks to measure the humus matter, soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The analyses indicate whether lime is needed. If lime is required, the analyses will recommend the amount that needs to be applied.

Lab equipment

Experts recommend superior quality soil testing lab equipment to test the soil. There are many soil testing equipment manufacturers available around the world. Therefore, knowing where to find a leading supplier and exporter to shop can help a great deal. Reliable equipment can be used to examine the soil, plants, manure and irrigation water. Experts rely on these devices to perform accurate soil testing, plant analysis and water quality assessment. The equipment used, area sampled; depth and correct sample mix will provide information and influence a decision.

A good sample

A soil test needs to be performed at the right time and in the right way. It is advisable to take a sample several months before undertaking a new landscaping (i.e. before laying sod, planting a flowerbed, planting a vegetable garden or planting perennials. In the event that the soil tests recommend lime, you can have adequate time to apply it, in turn adjusting the soil pH levels, before planting.

In established areas, such as shrubbery, trees, lawns and other perennials, the tests can be conducted after 3 or 4 years. Although any time is right to conduct your samples, mid-Augusts to mid-September offer an appropriate time to take soil samples for cool season grasses, like ryegrass, bluegrass and fescue. When the sample is performed during this period, the lime can be applied in fall. Areas that have been fertilized or limed recently, the sampling can be delayed at least 6-8 weeks.

Sample areas separately

Each unique area should be sampled separately. For every unique area (e.g. perennial landscaped area, vegetable garden or lawn) at least 6-8 sub samples should be combined to form one sample. Furthermore, if a single area has both healthy and unhealthy areas, sample these areas separately. It is advisable to use clean soil sampling equipment.

Use a clean hand garden trowel, soil probe, shovel or spade to collect samples. Avoid using galvanized tools, bronze or brass because they can contaminate soil samples with zinc and/or copper. Furthermore, the sample should be mixed in a plastic bucket that is clean. If the bucket held some chemicals or fertilizers, it needs to be washed thoroughly before utilizing it to conduct soil samples.

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Tuesday, 19 August 2014

Some Popular Laboratory Equipment we manufacturer | Atico Export

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A laboratory is a place where varied types of scientific research and experiments are performed. A laboratory is used for observation and testing. The laboratory is found in schools, colleges, health centers, hospitals, research centers, investigation centers etc. This can be just a single room or a complete building equipped with all facilities to perform experiments. The laboratories are designed in such a way that depending on the subject of research, varied tasks can be performed like scientific experimentation or research, manufacturing of drugs and chemicals, collection of data and samples etc.

The science subject as a whole is a vast subject consisting of various fields of studies, though the main categories are physics, biology, chemistry and medical where there is the maximum need for a laboratory and laboratory equipments. Its a common fact that the basic requirement in a laboratory is the laboratory apparatus and equipment. No experiments can be performed or no studies can be done in a laboratory without using these apparatus. The lab apparatuses are used during the experimentation process to collect data, to hold samples, to heat or mix solutions, to measure, and various other such tasks.

Depending on the subject and the experiment, the laboratory apparatus can be classified as physics laboratory, biology laboratory, chemistry laboratory, medical lab apparatus etc. There are a large number of apparatus which are used in every laboratory for each categories. When we talk about these apparatus, we imply lab tools, equipments and support systems that help the user, be it the researcher or the scholar to perform different experiments.

There are certain laboratory apparatus, designed specific to subjects. Like for instance, the popular physics lab equipments are Ammeter, Voltmeter, Rheostat, Galvanometer etc. Similarly, for Chemistry, the most widely used lab equipments are Alcohol Lamps, Evaporating Dish, Centrifuge, Calorimeter, Filter Paper etc. The hospital or medical laboratory apparatus are altogether different like as there are histology lab equipments, blood bank equipments, tissue culture equipments for medical related experiments. However, there are certain common lab apparatus which are invariably required in every type of experiments in a laboratory like a microscope, balance, beaker, flask, petri dish, safety equipments, tripod stands, test tube, etc. Besides these, a laboratory also consists of filtration equipments, cooling apparatus, lab consumables, mixing equipment, heating equipments and so on.

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Wednesday, 13 August 2014

Commonly Used Chemistry Lab Equipment and Its Uses

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The professionals who work in chemistry labs and other facilities require efficient chemistry lab equipment to perform their jobs. While some labs require specialized equipment to address specific research and diagnostic applications, there is a variety of lab equipment and essentials that are used generally. This article discusses commonly used chemistry lab equipment and its uses.

Chemistry Lab Equipment to Serve a Variety of Purposes

Chemistry lab equipment is used for variety of purposes such as for chemical analysis, for assessing a wide range of conditions and the functions of organs, for holding samples, for heating and measuring solutions, for mixing different types of liquids, to analyze samples, and more. To carry out all these purposes, different types of devices are needed. Most lab apparatus comes equipped with advanced features and incorporates highly advanced technology, which ensures functionality, reliable service, and accurate analytical results.

Commonly Used Equipment in Chemistry Labs

Glassware: Commonly used laboratory equipment includes glassware. Glassware comprises a variety of equipment ranging from beakers, Erlenmeyer Flasks, test tubes, and more. Beakers are multipurpose lab containers used to hold and heat liquids. Erlenmeyer Flasks are essential to heat and store liquids. The advantage of the Erlenmeyer Flask is that the bottom has a wide area, so that a greater surface area is exposed to the heat. Other essential products that belong under this category include pipettes, pipette tips, shakers, filters, stirrers, mixers, rotators and disruptors.

Analyzers: Laboratory analyzers are indispensable in chemistry labs. Chemistry analyzers are used for carrying out a range of diagnostic functions, such as routine analysis of albumin, creatinine, glucose, bilirubin, and more. You can find fully automated chemistry analyzers, which are used to perform research functions at a faster rate and provide results within a minimum span of time.

Measuring Instruments - Balances and scales are used to measure the weight of a sample and determining its mass. There are several different types of balances and scales used in laboratory. These include:


Microscopes: Microscopes are used extensively in chemistry labs for variety of purposes. These are beneficial for sample preparation, bulk sample analysis, and more.

Consumables and supplies - Apart from the specific lab equipment, reagents, controls, consumables are essential items that a lab requires for routine applications.

Other Types of Chemistry Laboratory Apparatus

Apart from the above mentioned essentials, other chemistry lab equipment that are commonly used in laboratories include centrifuges, refrigerators and freezers, water baths, dry baths, hot plates, and so forth.

To run your practice more efficiently, make sure that you equip your lab with such commonly used chemistry lab equipment. Technologically advanced devices enter the market every day. So ensure that you purchase equipment with technologically advanced features and also learn all its uses before you start. It is best to rely on any leading laboratory equipment supplier to purchase laboratory equipment. There are many providers offering a wide inventory of new and recertified models of important medical laboratory equipment. Apart from product sales, a reputable dealer can deliver excellent sales advice, installation services and post-sales support.

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Tuesday, 12 August 2014

Teaching Mechanical Energy Conservation

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Now, I move on to the conservation of mechanical energy. Here again, I will show you how I explain physics problem solutions in terms of fundamental principles. As always, the statement of the principle will be the first line of the problem solution. The problem I have chosen to illustrate the method requires the application of both Newton's second law and mechanical energy conservation.

The notation I have been using throughout this series is described in earlier articles, specifically "Teaching Kinematics", "Teaching Newton's Second Law", and "Solving Work-Energy Problems".

Problem. A tiny box of mass M starts from rest and slides down the frictionless surface of a cylinder of radius R. Show that the box leaves the surface when the angle between the radiial line to the box and the vertical axis is th = arccos(2/3).

Analysis. The box is touching just the frictionless cylindrical surface, which exerts an outward normal force N on it. The only other force on the box is its weight MG. The box is moving along a circular path, so we apply Newton's second law in the radial direction (outward positive). With the help of a free-body diagram, we have

... Newton's Second Law

... SUM(Fr) = MAr

... -MGcos(th) + N = M(-V**2)/R.

Since the cylindrical surface can only push (it can't pull), the box cannot stay on the surface unless the normal force N is greater than zero. Consequently, the box leaves the surface at the point where N = 0. From the last equation, this corresponds to

... cos(th) = (V**2)/RG.

But this doesn't tell us much if we don't know the speed V of the box, so let's see what we can learn by applying mechanical energy conservation. We use an inertial coordinate frame with the y axis vertical and the origin at the circular center of the cylinder. We equate the box's mechanical energies at the top of the cylinder and at the point where it leaves the cylinder. The initial position of the box is Yi = R, its initial speed is Vi = 0, its final position is Yu = Rcos(th) and its final speed is Vu = V, the speed when it leaves the surface. Now with the conservation of mechanical energy,

... Conservation of Mechanical Energy

... (MVi**2)/2 + MGYi = (MVu**2)/2 + MGYu

... (M0**2)/2 + MGR = (MV**2)/2 + MGRcos(th),

so... V**2 = 2GR(1 - cos(th)).

Finally, plugging this result into the equation for cos(th) we found previously, we have

... cos(th) = 2GR(1 - cos(th))/RG = 2 - 2cos(th),

and... th = arccos(2/3).

Dr William Moebs is a retired physics professor, who taught at two Universities: Indiana-Purdue Fort Wayne and Loyola Marymount University. You can see hundreds of examples illustrating how he emphasizes fundamental principles by consulting PHYSICS HELP

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Monday, 11 August 2014

Platelet Aggregation

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Platelet aggregation testing is useful in the evaluation of suspected hereditary and acquired disorders of platelet function. Activation of platelets causes them to change shape, secrete their intracellular granules, and aggregate with each other. Platelets normally contain two major types of granules - alpha and dense granules. These granules contain substances which promote hemostasis when secreted from platelets at the site of vascular injury. The alpha granules contain fibrinogen, factor V, and von Willebrand factor while the dense granules contain platelet factor 4, ADP, ATP, calcium and serotonin. Abnormalities of platelet function may be hereditary or acquired. Hereditary platelet function disorders include rare defects of adhesion (Bernard Soulier syndrome), rare defects of aggregation (Glanzmann thrombasthenia), and more common defects of secretion (alpha or dense granule deficiency, aspirin-like defects, or other primary secretion defects).

Acquired platelet function disorders are more common than the hereditary disorders and include drug-induced platelet dysfunction (including aspirin, NSAID's, clopidogrel, antibiotics, various cardiovascular and psychotropic drugs), uremia, and myeloproliferative disorders.

Classically, platelet function has been tested in the laboratory by testing platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma upon addition of various agonists such as ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid, epinephrine and ristocetin. Using modern platelet aggregometers, it is possible to evaluate platelet secretion simultaneously, by measuring release of ATP by the aggregating platelets. Measurement of platelet secretion allows the laboratory diagnosis of secretion defects with greater sensitivity than platelet aggregation testing alone. Platelet aggregation may be normal in some cases, and measurement of platelet secretion may be critical for diagnosis.

The following concentrations of each agonist are used: ADP (2uM and 5uM), collagen (1ug/mL), arachidonic acid (1mM) and ristocetin (1.25 mg/mL). For von Willebrand disease evaluation, dilute ristocetin (0.625 mg/mL) is also added. Evaluation of thrombocytosis (platelet count >400,000/uL) includes epinephrine (10uM). Platelet secretion is measured together with aggregation for all agonists except ristocetin.

Decreased response to ristocetin and normal aggregation with the other agonists is seen in von Willebrand's disease and Bernard Soulier syndrome. For diagnosis of von Willebrand disease, platelet response to both concentrations of ristocetin must be evaluated together with von Willebrand disease screening tests such as ristocetin cofactor, von Willebrand disease antigen, and factor VIII assay. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is characterized by absent aggregation with ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid and normal response to ristocetin. Inherited disorders of platelet secretion usually demonstrate a decreased secondary aggregation wave with ADP, decreased response to collagen and variable response to arachidonic acid; however, the pattern is not always typical.

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Sunday, 10 August 2014

Biology laboratory : Protection Is Foremost

There are certain primary lab guidelines of protection which one should adhere to while operating in any of the technology laboratories. Since some of the products existing in a biology lab can be really risky it becomes all the more necessary for individuals to adhere to the guidelines of protection. Examine them out:

Prior to coming into a biology lab, one should be obvious of the workouts that has to be taken in the lab. It is better to study the lab guide well in enhance so that you are prepared with the information of lab accessories, workouts and the other nitty-gritties of the chemistry lab.

Cleanliness is very essential in the lab. Be particular about maintaining the place around your office elegant. In situation something has poured over on the desk, you should instantly ask for support to fresh it. Create sure you fresh your arms after completing it.

Another essential lab protection concept in a bio lab is to be careful and careful while using various accessories in the lab. Dealing with cup or distinct things can be risky if one is not being careful about its managing. Thus, be careful as well as careful while managing the accessories in a chemistry lab. A lab protection indication graph can be incredibly useful in such a situation.

Since operating in a bio lab can be incident vulnerable, it is better to put on the type of outfits which have the prospective of destructive. You would obliviously not like your new set of outfits getting broken permanently while operating in the lab! It is all the more better to put on a lab cover while operating. Besides, shut footwear are suggested too.

Chemical Cautious
One has to be really careful while operating with the substances in a lab and the best way for it is to consider each and every substance as risky. In situation any substance gets straight hold of your epidermis, ensure that that you fresh it off instantly to prevent all types of adverse reactions.

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Friday, 8 August 2014

Uses of Oilfield Accessories and Solutions in Development Work

The look for for oil still happens up to this day. Oil is regarded as a valuable factor, since the globe generally lifestyles on it. Just like in any development area, the procedure will never be done right if the incorrect gadgets is used and this is real even in oil places. The exploration of oil is not easy that is quickly done; it needs an whole device of several gadgets which all perform together to create sure that the device will get what it needs. There are several uses of different oilfield gadgets when it comes to finding oil.

Some of them include:

Locate Oilfields which are existing 
Like monitoring gadgets, an oilfield acquiring organization will always have gadgets that has the capability to look for existing oilfields within near variety. Locating an oilfield is essential because none of the actual perform begins without an oilfield to perform on. Once an oilfield is situated, other actions in the procedure such as the exploration and collecting of oil will take position. But before any of this, the actual oilfield position should be discovered.

Drilling the oilfield 

Once an oilfield is discovered, the actual perform begins. The exploration and collecting of oil in the various oil bore holes will need complicated gadgets. We all know that oilfields and oil bore holes are not discovered in locations where individuals are discovered. They are usually situated in far flung places, far away from humankind such as deserts and in the center of the sea. Since these locations are difficult to discover, oilfield solutions such as power turbines and development of the oil rig is required so that the oil can be collected. The exploration won't begin unless the whole oilfield gadgets is finish, and is up and operating through power. Aside from the oil rig itself, the position should be designed with resting places and examining laboratories for the employees to be able that everything can be done quickly. This implies that an oilfield acquiring organization will have to protected these whole first they generate the employees to begin to routine.

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